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What are the PCBA circuit board test methods?

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What are the PCBA circuit board test methods?
PCBA circuit boards involve many circuits and components, and testing is extremely important, which is related to the straight-through rate and delivery quality of the product. The current mainstream 5 circuit board test methods are:

1. Manual visual test

Manual visual testing is to confirm the placement of components on the PCB through human vision and comparison. This technology is one of the most widely used online testing methods. But with the increase in output and the shrinking of circuit boards and components, this method is becoming less and less applicable. Low upfront cost and no test fixture are its main advantages; at the same time, high long-term cost, discontinuous defect detection, difficulty in data collection, no electrical testing and visual limitations are also the main disadvantages of this method.

2. Automated Optical Inspection, AOI

This test method is also called automatic visual test. It is usually used before and after reflow. It is a newer method of confirming manufacturing defects. It has a better effect on the polarity of components and the existence of components. It is a non-electrical, fixture-free online technology. Its main advantages are easy follow-up diagnosis, easy program development, and no fixture; the main disadvantage is poor short-circuit recognition, and it is not an electrical test.

3. Functional Test

Functional testing is the earliest automatic testing principle. It is a basic testing method for a specific PCB or a specific unit, which can be completed with various test equipment. Functional tests mainly include Final Product Test and Hot Mock-up.

4. Flying-Probe Tester

Flying probe tester is also called probe tester, and it is also a commonly used test method. Due to advances in mechanical accuracy, speed, and reliability, it has been generally welcomed in the past few years. In addition, the current requirements for a test system with fast conversion and no fixture capabilities required for prototype manufacturing and low-volume manufacturing make flying probe testing the best choice. The main advantage of the flying probe tester is that it is the fastest Time To Market tool, with automatic test generation, no fixture cost, good diagnosis and easy programming.

5. Manufacturing Defect Analyzer, MDA)
MDA is a good tool for only diagnosing manufacturing defects in high-volume/low-mix environments. The main advantages of this test method are low initial cost, high output, easy follow-up diagnosis and fast and complete short-circuit and open-circuit tests; the main disadvantage is that functional tests cannot be performed, usually there is no test coverage indication, fixtures must be used, and high test costs. .

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